Thursday, September 17, 2009

Low-salt diet offers key to treating stubborn high blood pressure

David Brill
Medical Tribune
Cutting down on salt can dramatically lower blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant hypertension and could offer a genuine alternative to ramping up medications, a study suggests.
American researchers found that BP dropped by 22.7/9.1 mmHg after a week of a low-salt diet compared to a high-salt diet – an effect comparable to adding two more drugs.

This drop came on a background of heavy medication: patients in the study were already taking an average of 3.4 antihypertensive drugs per day.
Although small – just 12 patients took part – the study has been greeted enthusiastically by experts, who are calling for a renewed focus on salt reduction for patients whose BP remains uncontrolled.

Leading hypertension expert Dr. Lawrence Appel described the results as “striking,” particularly given that all study patients were taking hydrochlorothiazide. This volume-reducing therapy might have been expected to attenuate the effects of a low-salt diet, he wrote in an accompanying editorial. [Hypertension 2009 Jul 20; Epub ahead of print]

“The data presented … strongly suggest that persons with resistant hypertension are extremely sensitive to the BP-lowering effects of sodium reduction. The observed reductions in BP were huge – roughly equivalent to adding two antihypertensive medications,” wrote Appel, a professor of medicine at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, US.
“Although clinicians commonly focus on the next drug (e.g. aldosterone blocking therapy) and sometimes a device (e.g. Rheos systems that stimulate carotid baroreceptors), a renewed and aggressive emphasis on lifestyle modification, specifically sodium reduction, is warranted in patients with resistant hypertension and uncontrolled BP.”

Dr. Low Lip Ping, chairman emeritus of the Singapore Heart Foundation and founding president of the Singapore Hypertension Society, said: “This small but interesting study showed that among patients with medication-resistant hypertension, salt restriction has a substantial impact on lowering blood pressure by reducing intravascular fluid retention and improving vascular function.”

“Dietary salt restriction, ideally to less than 100 mEq of sodium/24 hours, should be recommended for all patients with resistant hypertension. With a low-salt diet these patients could have their blood pressure controlled with fewer medications,” said Low, also a private practitioner at the Low Cardiology Clinic, Mount Elizabeth Medical Centre.

The study is the first to demonstrate that the benefits of salt reduction extend beyond patients with just mild or moderate hypertension, according to lead author Dr. Eduardo Pimenta.
“A low-salt diet is beneficial for all patients with hypertension but in patients with resistant hypertension the effect is stronger. Before prescribing another antihypertensive medication, doctors should spend more time with their patients explaining low-salt diets and, if possible, refer the patient to a nutritionist,” said Pimenta, now a clinical research fellow at the Endocrine Hypertension Research Center, University of Queensland School of Medicine, Brisbane, Australia. The study itself was undertaken at the University of Alabama at Birmingham, US.
Study subjects had a mean office BP of 145.8/83.9 mmHg at baseline. All were randomized to either a high- or low-salt diet for 1 week, then a 2-week washout period, followed by a final week of the opposite diet. The low- and high-salt diets provided 50 and 250 mmol of sodium per day, respectively. [Hypertension 2009 Jul 20; Epub ahead of print]

All measures of BP were reduced by the low-salt diet as compared to the high-salt diet: systolic and diastolic; office and ambulatory; and daytime, nighttime and 24-hour.
The Singapore Heart Foundation and Hypertension Society have already been promoting the message about salt reduction – especially in light of National Nutrition Survey data suggesting that nine out of 10 Singaporeans exceed the recommended sodium intake of 2,000 mg/day.

taken from mims online

Wednesday, June 10, 2009

cancer and fat

article regarding fat and cancer

copy n paste the link ye.. i ve uploaded d article

enjoy reading ( bc abstract je pon ok)

cold drinks~

Wednesday, April 29, 2009

Immune-boosting Diet

Well, well.. H1N1 spreads really fast.. although there’s no case in Malaysia yet.. We have to be careful in case of d spread to our country..

So what actually H1N1 @ selsema babi?

  • Influenza A virus subtype H1N1, also know as A(H1N1) or simply H1N1
  • It is a subtype of influenza virus A and the most common cause of influenza in humans.
  • Swine influenza, or “swine flu”, is a highly contagious acute respiratory disease of pigs, caused by one of several swine influenza A viruses. Morbidity tends to be high and mortality low (1-4%). The virus is spread among pigs by aerosols, direct and indirect contact, and asymptomatic carrier pigs. Outbreaks in pigs occur year round, with an increased incidence in the fall and winter in temperate zones. Many countries routinely vaccinate swine populations against swine influenza.
  • Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans (including the strain(s) responsible for the 1918 flu pandemic ) and the many strains that cause influenza worldwide each year. Other strains of H1N1 are endemic in pigs and in birds. The 1918 flu pandemic killed 50–100 million people worldwide from 1918 to 1919~ byk tuu..
  • Low pathogenic H1N1 strains still exist in the wild today, causing roughly half of all flu infections in 2006.
  • In March and April 2009, an outbreak of influenza in Mexico has confirmed 192 cases, and 26 fatalities with the new strain of H1N1 were detected.
  • As of April 28, the new strain was suspected to have infected more than 2,500 individuals worldwide, with 152 attributed deaths (Selsema Babi). The U.S. Centers for Disease Control warned that it was possible the outbreak could develop into a pandemic.
  • On April 27, 2009, the World Health Organization raised alertness from level 3 to level 4 (max 6) worldwide, since (sustained) human-to-human transfer of the virus was confirmed.

Sebagai langkah berjage2, what we can do is boost our immune system so we r less likely utk infected by any pathogen.. Insya Allah..

So here is some tips in term of dietary yg kte ley wat utk meningkatkan daya ketahanan diri..

1. Vitamin C: Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant that protects against infection and enhances immunity. Vitamin C works by increasing the production of white blood cells, which fight off infection. It also works by increasing the production of antibodies and in particular, raises levels of interferon, the antibody that coats cell surfaces, preventing the entry of viruses.

Vitamin C sources: citrus fruits, potatoes, green peppers, strawberries and pineapple.

2. Vitamin E: Vitamin E is important to a healthy immune system. One function of vitamin E is that it enhances the production of B-cells, the immune cells that produce antibodies that destroy bacteria. In fact, research shows that people who eat vitamin E rich foods tend to have a higher immunity.

Vitamin E : seeds, vegetable oils and grains.

3. Beta-carotene: Beta Carotene enhances the functioning of your immune system. Beta Carotene works by increasing the number of infection fighting cells, natural killer cells and helper T cells.

Sources: sweet potatoes, carrots, kale, spinach, turnip greens, winter squash, collard greens, cilantro and fresh thyme.

*To enhance the availability of the beta-carotene in these foods, they should be eaten raw or lightly steamed.

4. Zinc: Zinc helps to prevent a weakened immune system. Studies have shown that a zinc deficiency can impair a number of white blood cells and platelets (blood cells involved in clotting), and can increase susceptibility to infection. Excessive zinc intake, however, may impair immunity and increase infections.

Sources of zinc:oysters, liver, lean beef, pork, turkey, lamb, lentils, pumpkin and sesame seeds, garbanzo beans and yogurt.

5. Garlic: Garlic is known for its cold-fighting abilities. It increases the potency of two important cells of the immune system: T-lymphocytes and macrophages. The immune-boosting properties of garlic appear to be due to its sulfur-containing compounds, such as allicin and sulfides. You can eat it raw or cooked—so start adding it to your favorite foods today!

6. Omega-3 fats: The all important omega-3 fats are essential immune boosters, as they work by increasing the activity of phagocytes, the white blood cells that eat up bacteria. These fats also help strengthen cell membranes, thereby speeding up healing and strengthening resistance to infection in the body.

Omega-3 fats : fatty fish (salmon, mackerel, tuna), flax oil and flaxseeds, omega-3 eggs, nuts and seeds, ground flaxseed to yogurt, baked goods, cereals or smoothies or use unrefined, cold-pressed flax seed oil as a salad dressing.

7. Make time for tea: Green tea is a rich source of a type of antioxidant called a catechin, it may give the beverage antigen-fighting abilities. When researchers at the University of Sherbrooke in Canada added green tea to lab samples of the adenovirus (one of many viruses that causes colds), they discovered that egcg inhibited the virus' ability to replicate. Similarly, researchers in South Korea found that egcg can also stop the influenza virus from replicating. While these studies were conducted in petri dishes instead of human subjects, some researchers believe you can reasonably bank on green tea's benefits -- particularly when it's consumed in place of colas or other sugary beverages with little nutritional benefit. "Green tea catechins can improve lymphocyte responses and seem to have anti-inflammatory effects," Stephensen says.

What to do: Trade at least one cup of coffee each day for green tea. To derive the optimal amounts of catechins from your tea, let the bag steep for at least three minutes in hot water.

Immune Drainers

Some foods or unhealthy lifestyle behaviors can make a person more susceptible to colds and flus. Avoid high-fat, high-sugar junk foods, as they can decrease the activity of the immune system. It’s also best to avoid too much caffeine (pop, coffee, tea, chocolate) as caffeine can undermine your body’s immune system and act as a diuretic, which will deplete your body of water. Also, don’t smoke! Smoking can impair your resistance as well as injure the respiratory tract, which makes you more susceptible to the flu.

Kesimpulannye, Jage kesihatan by:

1. Variety & Balance nutrition- this will ensure adequate nutrients for d body's optimum function

2. Exercise!

Saturday, April 25, 2009

13 Things You Should Know About Your Weight

By Joanne Chen

There's been some new breakthroughs in the science of weight loss that are changing the way we look at fat. Find out what the new wisdom says about diets, genes and what causes us to gain.

Eating less and exercising more is old advice for shedding pounds (still, the basics are the most important). Now contemporary science says that genes, hormonal imbalances, and even viruses, play a role in obesity. Here’s the latest thinking behind size and thighs, fatness and fitness.

1. It Really Is Genetic

When first discovered it was called the fatso gene. Turns out, people with two copies of the more politely named FTO gene were 60 percent more likely to be obese than those without it. Scientists now suspect that there are lots of fat genes.

2. More Fat Cells

Some people have twice as many fat cells as others have, says Kirsty Spalding, PhD, of the Karolinska Karolinska Institute in Stockholm. Gaining or losing pounds will not change your fat-cell count. But, Spalding says you’re better off with more fat cells than with fewer fat cells that become overstuffed and enlarged.

3. You Can Change Your Metabolism

Another Scandinavian team looked at weight gain on the cellular level. Kirsi Pietiläinen, PhD, an assistant professor of nutrition at Hensinki University Central Hospital University Central Hospital, suspects that gaining as little as 11 pounds can slow metabolism making it harder to lose it. Exercise can change that.

4. Stress Fattens You

Stress spark cravings for carbohydrate-rich snack foods, which can calm stress hormones that signal your body to store fat. So, make time for stress relief to help keep the weight off.

5. Mom's Pregnancy Sealed Your Fate

A growing body of science suggests that sugary and fatty foods, consumed even before you're born can make you fat. Moms-to-be, take note: You can give your kids a head start by eating well before they're born.

6. Sleep More, Lose More

University of Chicago researchers reported that sleep deprivation triggers a decrease in leptin (which helps you feel full) while increasing of ghrelin (which triggers hunger). As a result, we think we're hungry when we’re not. Sleep may be the cheapest and easiest obesity treatment.

7. Your Spouse's Weight Matters

A study in the New England Journal of Medicine suggests that if one spouse is obese, the other is 37 percent more likely to become obese too. Obesity seems to spread through social networks.

8. Achoo! The Obesity Virus

Adenoviruses are responsible for a host of ills, from upper respiratory tract problems to gastrointestinal troubles. The link to fat was uncovered when researchers at the University of Wisconsin injected chickens with the viruses and found that certain strains fattened them up.

9. Cookies Are Addictive

When subjects at Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia were shown the names of foods they liked, the parts of the brain that got excited were the same parts activated in drug addicts. It may have to do with dopamine, the hormone linked to motivation and pleasure.

10. Tainted Taste Buds

Researcher Derek Snyder at the Center for Small and Taste, University of Florida, found that ear infections could damage taste nerve running through the middle ear, lessening the ability to sense sweetness and fattiness, causing sufferers to eat more.

11. Antioxidants Are Also Anti-Fat

Free radicals are now blamed not only for making you look old but weakening the “stop eating” signal. The best way to fight back? Avoid the junk and load up on colorful, antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables.

12. Pick a Diet, Any Diet

Here’s a secret—all weight loss books have four basic rules to healthy eating:

* Consume carbs in the form of whole grains and fibre.
* Avoid trans and saturated fats.
* Eat lean protein.
* Fill up on fruits and vegetables.

13. You Can Be Fat and Fit

A growing body of literature suggests that size doesn't matter when it comes to your health. A study published in the Archives of Internal Medicine found that 51 percent of the overweight and almost 32 percent of the obese had mostly normal cholesterol, and other measures of good health. It also found that 23.5 percent of trim adults were, in fact, metabolically abnormal and more vulnerable to heart disease.

Adapted from: Reader’s Digest Magazine, Malaysia, April 2009

I'm on holiday!

Yeay.. finally, cuti jua akhirnya... a week to go b4 my practical starts.. good time for me to start putting stuffs here..~~blog yg tidak bgerak ini~~ if i'm not writing pon putting in all the interesting articles i read..

so here it goes..

Readers Digest , April 09 - 13 things you need to know about your weight
(summarized version)

Sunday, February 15, 2009


Yesterday, wani and I went to one stall near Tanjung Lumpur, kononnye nak makan keropok lekor.. Unfortunately keropok belom goreng lagik.. so, while waiting, we chose few kuih coz they seems so inviting.. huhu.. I said to wani, “ni byk gile calories kite amek nih.. xpadan ngan ko gune treadmill stgh jam”. Then wani said, “tu la.. gune treadmill lebih kurang setengah jam baru 100 lebih kcal (kcal= unit for energy). (Approximately, 3o minutes of exercise = 120 kcal)That was a part of our extended conversation bout makan byk and kurang exercise..

Actually, it is OK to eat a lot, provided u burn it back la.. Unfortunately, it is not easy to burn the calories as much as we consume foods.. main meal susah nak elak, so try to reduce makan kuih2 or junkfoods, cz they are high in calories..







High Calories (>200 kcal)

Lepat pisang

Cheese cake

Medium Calories (100-200 kcal)

Plain cake

Kuih kastard jagung

Popiah goreng

Pisang goreng


Kuih lapis

Kuih talam ubi kayu

Kuih seri muka


Plain doughnut

Low Calories (<100kcal)

Tapai pulut

Popiah basah

Kuih apam

1 piece

1 piece

1 piece

1 piece

1 piece

3 small pieces

1 piece

1 piece

1 piece

1 piece

1 piece

1 piece

1 pack

1 piece

3 pieces































Typically, for adult man requirement per day 1600-1800 kcal* while woman 1400- 1600 kcal per day* Try imagine berape banyak the kuih-muih da amek.. tu blom kire nak minum dhn ice lemon tea ke sirap bandung , the tarik dan lain2. So, is it possible for us to use food we consume? If no, it’ll be stored in the body and one form of it is fat.

So… kesimpulannye, try to eat less kuih.. huhu

* Energy per day yg I tulis tu average, lain org lain requirement. It is very simple utk kire energy requirement per day.